End-to-end encrypted chats have their own security code used to verify that the calls and the messages you send to that chat are end-to-end encrypted. This code can be found in the contact info screen, both as a QR code and a 60-digit number. These codes are unique to each chat and can be compared between people in each chat to verify that the messages you send to the chat are end-to-end encrypted. Security codes are just visible versions of the special key shared between you - and don't worry, it's not the actual key itself, that's always kept secret.
At times, the security codes used in end-to-end encryption might change. This can happen because you or your contact reinstalled WhatsApp or changed phones.
To receive notifications when security codes change:
Note: This feature is only available for a contact in an end-to-end encrypted chat.
You can always verify that a contact's security code is legitimate. Learn how in this article on end-to-end encryption.